AIDS in humans results in a gradual and persistent decline and failure of the immune system, resulting in heightened risk of life-threatening infection and cancers. In the majority of cases, HIV is a sexually-transmitted infection. However, HIV can also be transmitted from a mother to her child, during pregnancy or childbirth through blood or fluid exposureor through breastfeeding.
HIV infects humans and causes damage by taking over cells in the immune system—the part of the body that usually works to fight off germs, bacteria and disease. When that happens, the body may not be able to fight off certain types of illnesses or cancers. If the infection is not detected and treated, the immune system gradually weakens and AIDS develops.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. This chapter presents an overview of knowledge about the transmission of HIV, focusing on the sexual and substance-using behaviors that have been most implicated in the spread of the disease.
The human immunodeficiency virus HIV infects cells of the immune system, destroying or impairing their function. Infection with the virus results in progressive deterioration of the immune system, leading to "immune deficiency. Infections associated with severe immunodeficiency are known as "opportunistic infections", because they take advantage of a weakened immune system. It is defined by the occurrence of any of more than 20 opportunistic infections or HIV-related cancers.
The likelihood of two false positives is extremely rare. Unfortunately, false-negative test results can happen too, so if your partner gets negative results and yours came back positive, it is wise to be cautious and have your partner retested. According to AIDS.
HIV is the fastest growing epidemic in Asia. Strong political leadership and public response have aided in what appears to be a slowing down of the epidemic among populations at risk since Overall, the national estimated HIV prevalence among the population ages 15 to 49 has fallen from 3.
Detailed fact sheets are intended for physicians and individuals with specific questions about sexually transmitted diseases. Detailed fact sheets include specific testing and treatment recommendations as well as citations so the reader can research the topic more in depth. One reason is the behaviors that put someone at risk for one infection not using condoms, multiple partners, anonymous partners often put them at risk for other infections.
HIV infection impacts a growing number of women in Illinois each year. Many hundreds of other women are probably living with HIV even though they are unaware of their own infection. Nationally, HIV infection is the leading cause of death for African-American women between the ages of 25 and Caucasian women account for 16 percent of Illinois women living with HIV, while the Caucasian population represents more than 73 percent of Illinois residents.
When considering the issue of female-to-female sexual transmission it is important to draw a distinction between the risk of transmission by this route and diagnoses of HIV infection in women who identify as lesbian. There have been only six reported cases of woman-to-woman sexual transmission, and these reports need to be viewed with the same caution as any other case reports of transmission through oral sex cunnilingus. In the early years of the epidemic, investigations of the source of infection in US women failed to identify any cases of female-to-female transmission.
He is surrounded by his father, sister and niece. At the beginning of the s, before HIV had been identified as the cause of AIDS, the infection was thought to only affect specific groups, such as gay men in developed countries and people who inject drugs. It was then that the global health community understood that HIV could also spread between heterosexual people, through blood transfusions, and that infected mothers could transmit HIV to their babies.